What is the function of Ultraviolet Sterilizers?
What are the Ultraviolet Sterilizers?
Ultraviolet Sterilizers are ultraviolet light systems that protect water against aquatic microorganisms without the use of chemicals.
The UV system is a modern and efficient water disinfection solution that effectively combats microbiological contamination, inactivating bacteria, viruses, and other pathogenic organisms, preventing them from reproducing and causing other health risks. The result of this treatment is safe, healthy drinking water.
Disinfecting drinking water through ultraviolet sterilizers is an exceptionally effective, environmentally safe, fully proven means and the future path to water disinfection around the world.
The Ultraviolet Sterilizers does not harm the environment
Ultraviolet light is a natural disinfection process that does not harm the environment and can be common in drinking water applications for industrial, commercial, and residential processes, in addition to the disinfection of effluents. Also, Water is a universal solvent and absorbs traces of everything it meets.
These contaminants include disease-causing bacteria, viruses, algae, fungi, and protozoa, which can sense through water analysis. The only way to make sure the water is free of microorganisms is to disinfect it.
Ultraviolet Sterilizers observation of several principles
Abstract: Efficient water disinfection using ultraviolet irradiation involves the observation of several principles that may be new to water treatment professionals. Moreover, the method presents challenges and advantages as it does not leave chemicals in the produced water.
Also, it is required prior treatment to reduce suspended solids that could impair UV transmission through a shading effect whereby some contaminants could escape inactivation. At certain wavelengths that produce ozone, UV also offers oxidizing properties.
There are some means of disinfection common worldwide
Among them, we highlight chlorine, Ultraviolet Sterilizers, and ozone. The various forms of disinfection with chlorine and derivatives are currently the most common. However, ultraviolet and ozone have strongly advanced as means of disinfection. Also, in this article, we are going to cover ultraviolet ray disinfection.
Ultraviolet light is part of the electromagnetic spectrum with wavelengths between 100 and 400 nanometers (nm). The shorter the wavelength, the greater the energy produced. The most commonly common low-pressure mercury vapor lamps have a wavelength of 253.7 nm.
Ultraviolet Sterilizers is most suitable for the elimination of microbes
Therefore, the UVC range is the most suitable for the elimination of microbes. The vacuum UV range (UV-V), specifically with a wavelength of 185 nm, is suitable for the production of ozone (O3). Ultraviolet and fluorescent lamps are similar.
Ultraviolet Sterilizers are produced because of current flowing through mercury vapor between the lamp’s electrodes. Low-pressure mercury lamps produce most rays with a length of 253.7 nm. This length is very close to the length of 260 to 265 nm, which is the most efficient for killing microbes.
Difference between the germicidal lamp and the fluorescent
The main difference between the germicidal lamp and the fluorescent lamp is that the germicide is made of quartz, whereas the fluorescent lamp is made of glass, with an internal phosphor layer that converts UV light into visible light.
Collisions between electrons and mercury atoms cause emissions of ultraviolet radiation, which is not visible to the human eye. When these rays collide with the phosphor, they “fluoresce” and convert to visible light. The quartz tube transmits 93% of the lamp’s UV rays while the glass (soft glass) emits very little.
Ultraviolet Sterilizers how to works?
“Ultraviolet Sterilizers” is a broad term that includes several groups of germs that cause disease. They differ in shape and life cycle but are similar in their small size and simple relative structure. The five biggest groups are viruses, bacteria, fungi, algae, and protozoa. Focusing on a basic bacterial cell, we are interested in the cell wall, the cytoplasmic membrane, and nucleic acid.
The main target of disinfection by ultraviolet sterilizers is the nucleic acid genetic material. Microbes are finish by ultraviolet light when light penetrates through the cell and is absorbed by nucleic acid. The absorption of ultraviolet light by nucleic acid causes a rearrangement of genetic information.
Ultraviolet Sterilizers is a complete set of genes of a species
The genome is the complete set of genes of a species. The high energy belonging with the short wavelength (240 – 280 nm) is by the RNA (RNA – ribonucleic acid) and by the cell’s DNA. The maximum absorption of ultraviolet light by nucleic acid, DNA, occurs at a wavelength of 260 nm.
Figure 5 shows the similarity between the ability of Ultraviolet Sterilizers to destroy E. Coli and the ability of E. Coli cells to absorb ultraviolet light. Note that ultraviolet light emission with a wavelength of 254 nm is very close to the best condition for light absorption by nucleic acid with the cell. A cell that cannot reproduce consider dead because it will no longer multiply.
DNA stores all the information needed to create a living thing.
DNA stores all the information needed to create a living thing. A gene is the unit of DNA capable of synthesizing a protein. A chromosome is a long string of DNA that looks like a strand.
Water quality parameters
To carry out the disinfection by Ultraviolet Sterilizers of drinking and industrial water, certain conditions for the water are necessary:
- 5-micron particle filter, as viruses or bacteria may not affect when there are particles.
- Also, depending on the quality of the water, charcoal filters may be necessary to remove organic material, which interferes with the transmission of ultraviolet light.
Iron and manganese levels must reduce to 0.3 parts per million (ppm) and 0.05 ppm, respectively, and hardness below 100 ppm. Iron, manganese, and hardness (calcium and magnesium) can precipitate in the quartz tube, impairing light transmission.
As carbon filters and resins can act as bacteria multiplication accelerators, ultraviolet reactors must install at the end of the line, that is, after these.
FACTORS AFFECTING EFFECTIVE UV DISINFECTION:
- Water quality
- Also, UV transmission
- Moreover, suspended solids
- Furthermore, Dissolved organics level
- In addition, total hardness
- Also, lamp conditions
- Moreover, Quartz tube cleaning
- Furthermore, lamp usage time
- Water treatment before UV
- Flow rate
- reactor design
These factors are mainly related to the exposure of contaminants in water and the efficient transmission of UV for proper activation. Problems include shading (where small contaminants are overshow by other contaminants in the water), fouling or discoloration of the quartz tube, lamp intensity, and inadequate fluxes.